A Literary Commentary

1 Nephi 4

v.10=And it came to pass that I was constrained by the Spirit that I should kill Laban; but I said in my heart: Never at any time have I shed the blood of man. And I shrunk and would that I might not slay him.

“Nisus ait: ‘dine hunc ardorem mentibus addunt,

Euryale, an sua cuique deus fit dira cupido?”[1]


v.13=Behold the Lord slayeth the wicked to bring forth his righteous purposes. It is better that one man should perish than that a nation should dwindle and perish in unbelief.

“Better one suffer than a nation grieve.”[2]

1 Nephi 8

v.2=And it came to pass that while my father tarried in the wilderness he spake unto us, saying: Behold, I have dreamed a dream; or, in other words, I have seen a vision.

“…καὶ γάρ τ᾽ ὄναρ ἐκ Διός ἐστιν…”[3]

1 Nephi 13

v.8=And the angel spake unto me, saying: Behold the gold, and the silver, and the silks, and the scarlets, and the fine-twined linen, and the precious clothing, and the harlots, are the desires of this great and abominable church.

“vobis picta croco et fulgenti murice vestis,

desidiae cordi, iuvat indulgere choreis,

et tunicae manicas et habent redimicula mitrae.”[4]


“By falsities and lyes the greatest part

Of Mankind they corrupted to forsake

God thir Creator, and th’ invisible

Glory of him that made them, to transform

Oft to the Image of a Brute, adorn’d

With gay Religions full of Pomp and Gold,

And Devils to adore for Deities:”[5]


v.15= And I beheld the Spirit of the Lord, that it was upon the Gentiles, and they did prosper and obtain the land for their inheritance; and I beheld that they were white, and exceedingly fair and beautiful, like unto my people before they were slain.


“It is impossible for any man of candor to reflect on this circumstance without partaking of the astonishment. It is impossible for the man of pious reflection not to perceive in it a finger of that Almighty hand which has been so frequently and signally extended to our relief in the critical stages of the revolution.”[6]


v.26= And after they go forth by the hand of the twelve apostles of the Lamb, from the Jews unto the Gentiles, thou seest the formation of that great and abominable church, which is most abominable above all other churches; for behold, they have taken away from the gospel of the Lamb many parts which are plain and most precious; and also many covenants of the Lord have they taken away.


“If Scripture, though deriv’d from heav’nly birth,

Has been but carelessly preserved on Earth;

If God’s own People, who of God before

Knew what we know, and had been promis’d more,

In fuller Terms of Heaven’s assisting Care,

And who did neither Time, nor Study spare

To keep this Book untainted, unperplext;

Let in gross Errours to corrupt the Text,

Omitted paragraphs, embroyl’d the Sense,

With vain Traditions stopt the gaping Fence,

Which every common hand pull’d up with ease:

What Safety from such brushwood-helps as these?

If written words from time are not secur’d,

How can we think have oral Sounds endur’d?

Which thus transmitted, if one Mouth has fail’d,

Immortal Lyes on Ages are intail’d;

And that some such have been, is prov’d too plain;

If we consider Interest, Church, and Gain.”[7]


1 Nephi 17

v.53= And it came to pass that the Lord said unto me: Stretch forth thine hand again unto thy brethren, and they shall not wither before thee, but I will shock them, saith the Lord, and this will I do, that they may know that I am the Lord their God.

“as intellectual beings we feel the air purified by the electric shock, when material force is overthrown by intellectual energies.”[8]

1 Nephi 19

v.12= And all these things must surely come, saith the prophet Zenos. And the rocks of the earth must rend; and because of the groanings of the earth, many of the kings of the isles of the sea shall be wrought upon by the Spirit of God, to exclaim: The God of nature suffers.

“’Either the world is now at an end or ell He that is maker of kynde suffryth.’”[9]

2 Nephi 2

v.11= For it must needs be, that there is an opposition in all things. If not so, my firstborn in the wilderness, righteousness could not be brought to pass, neither wickedness, neither holiness nor misery, neither good nor bad. Wherefore, all things must needs be a compound in one; wherefore, if it should be one body it must needs remain as dead, having no life neither death, nor corruption nor incorruption, happiness nor misery, neither sense nor insensibility.

“Capacity for joy/Admits temptation.”[10]

“Without contraries is no progression.”[11]

“Dieses heißt Schicksal: gegenüber sein/und nichts als das und immer gegenüber.”[12]

“…it is spedeful to some soulis to fele on this wise, somtime to be in comfort, and somtyme to faile and to be left to hemselfe. God wille we knowen that He kepyth us even alike sekir in wo and in wele.”[13]

“Happiness is enjoyed only in proportion as it is known; and such is the state or folly of man, that it is known only by experience of its contrary.”[14]

“The best heads that ever existed, Pericles, Plato, Julius Cæsar, Shakspeare, Goethe, Milton, were well-read, universally educated men, and quite too wise to undervalue letters. Their opinion has weight, because they had means of knowing the opposite opinion.”[15]

“Well, the way of paradoxes is the way of truth.”[16]

“Summa vero vis infinitatis et magna ac diligenti contemplatione dignissima est. in qua intellegi necesse est eam esse naturam ut omnia omnibus paribus paria respondeant;”[17]

v.23= And they would have had no children; wherefore they would have remained in a state of innocence, having no joy, for they knew no misery; doing no good, for they knew no sin.

“Rather your dauntless vertue, whom the pain

Of Death denounc’t, whatever thing Death be,

Deterrd not from atchieving what might leade

To happier life, knowledge of Good and Evil;”[18]


v.25= Adam fell that men might be; and men are, that they might have joy.

“As Men of Breeding, sometimes Men of Wit,

T’ avoid great Errors, must the less commit,”[19]


“Be cheerful; wipe thine eyes

Some falls are means the happier to arise.”[20]


“Perhaps we should be dull were we not chidden,

Paradise fruits are sweetest when forbidden.

Folly can season Wisdom, Hatred Love.”[21]


“’Sir, said he, if you had seen the miseries of the world, you would know how to value your present state.” “Now, said the prince, you have given me something to desire; I shall long to see the miseries of the world, since the sight of them is necessary to happiness.’”[22]


“And that shal be for a properte of blissid love that we shall know in God, which we myte never a knowen withoute wo goeing afore.”[23]


v.27= Wherefore, men are free according to the flesh; and all things are given them which are expedient unto man. And they are free to choose liberty and eternal life, through the great Mediator of all men, or to choose captivity and death, according to the captivity and power of the devil; for he seeketh that all men might be miserable like unto himself.


“Can hearts, not free, be tri’d whether they serve

Willing or no, who will but what they must

By Destinie, and can no other choose?”[24]


“…Evil’s own existence here,

Which God permits because the question’s hard

To abolish evil nor attaint free-will.”[25]


2 Nephi 4


v.19= And when I desire to rejoice, my heart groaneth because of my sins; nevertheless, I know in whom I have trusted.


“’For, where my worthiness is poor,

My will stands richly at the door

To pay shortcomings evermore.’”[26]


2 Nephi 9


v.7= Wherefore, it must needs be an infinite atonement—save it should be an infinite atonement this corruption could not put on incorruption. Wherefore, the first judgment which came upon man must needs have remained to an endless duration. And if so, this flesh must have laid down to rot and to crumble to its mother earth, to rise no more.


“Furthermore He leryd that I should behold the glorious asyeth, for this

asyeth makyng is more plesyng to God and more worshipfull for manys salvation

without comparison than ever was the synne of Adam harmfull.”[27]


2 Nephi 21


v.6= The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf and the young lion and fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.


“τὸν δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ὑπόδρα ἰδὼν προσέφη πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς:

‘Ἕκτορ μή μοι ἄλαστε συνημοσύνας ἀγόρευε:

ὡς οὐκ ἔστι λέουσι καὶ ἀνδράσιν ὅρκια πιστά,

οὐδὲ λύκοι τε καὶ ἄρνες ὁμόφρονα θυμὸν ἔχουσιν,

ἀλλὰ κακὰ φρονέουσι διαμπερὲς ἀλλήλοισιν,

ὣς οὐκ ἔστ᾽ ἐμὲ καὶ σὲ φιλήμεναι, οὐδέ τι νῶϊν

ὅρκια ἔσσονται, πρίν γ᾽ ἢ ἕτερόν γε πεσόντα…”[28]


2 Nephi 29


v.8= Wherefore murmur ye, because that ye shall receive more of my word? Know ye not that the testimony of two nations is a witness unto you that I am God, that I remember one nation like unto another? Wherefore, I speak the same words unto one nation like unto another. And when the two nations shall run together the testimony of the two nations shall run together also.


“Let us not dally with God when he offers us a blessing, to take as much of it as wee think will serve our ends, and turne him back the rest upon his hands, lest in his anger he snatch all from us again.”[29]


v.12= For behold, I shall speak unto the Jews and they shall write it; and I shall also speak unto the Nephites and they shall write it; and I shall also speak unto the other tribes of the house of Israel, which I have led away, and they shall write it; and I shall also speak unto all nations of the earth and they shall write it.


“’Tis said the sound of a Messiah’s Birth

Is gone through all the habitable Earth:

But still that Text must be confin’d alone

To what was Then inhabited, and known:

And what Provision could from thence accrue

To Indian Souls, and Worlds discovered New?

In other parts it helps, that Ages past,

The Scriptures there were known, and were imbrac’d…”[30]


Jacob 2


v.28= For I, the Lord God, delight in the chastity of women. And whoredoms are an abomination before me; thus saith the Lord of Hosts.


“’Tis chastity, my brother, chastity:

She that has that, is clad in compleat steel,”[31]


Mosiah 4


v.23= I say unto you, wo be unto that man, for his substance shall perish with him; and now, I say these things unto those who are rich as pertaining to the things of this world.


“As long as our civilization is essentially one of property, of fences, of exclusiveness, it will be mocked by delusions. Our riches will leave us sick; there will be bitterness in our laughter, and our wine will burn our mouth. Only that good profits which we can taste with all doors open, and which serves all men.”[32]


“You’re poor, except in what you richly give;”[33]

v.24= And again, I say unto the poor, ye who have not and yet have sufficient, that ye remain from day to day; I mean all you who deny the beggar, because ye have not; I would that ye say in your hearts that: I give not because I have not, but if I had I would give.

“a grateful mind

By owing owes not, but still pays, at once

Indebted and dischargd;”[34]


v.27= And see that all these things are done in wisdom and order; for it is not requisite that a man should run faster than he has strength. And again, it is expedient that he should be diligent, that thereby he might win the prize; therefore, all things must be done in order.


“Quod est, eo decet uti et, quicquid agas, agere pro viribus.”[35]


Mosiah 9


v.12= Now they were a lazy and an idolatrous people; therefore they were desirous to bring us into bondage, that they might glut themselves with the labors of our hands; yea, that they might feast themselves upon the flocks of our fields.

“I have certainly never heard of anything in that state which deserves to be regarded as an example to us—if indeed one should dignify with the name of ‘state’ the power which a horde of barbarians united by complicity in crime has seized by violence and murder…greedy attacks on the property of others, mutual assistance for purposes of plunder, and criminal conspiracy…”[36]


Mosiah 29


v.9= And if my son should turn again to his pride and vain things he would recall the things which he had said, and claim his right to the kingdom, which would cause him and also this people to commit much sin.


“εἰ δὲ δή τις ἄριστον θείη τὸ βασιλεύεσθαι ταῖς πόλεσιν, πῶς ἕξει τὰ περὶ τῶν τέκνων; πότερον καὶ τὸ γένος δεῖ βασιλεύειν; ἀλλὰ γιγνομένων ὁποῖοί τινες ἔτυχον, βλαβερόν.”[37]


Alma 7


v.12= And he will take upon him death, that he may loose the bands of death which bind his people; and he will take upon him their infirmities, that his bowels may be filled with mercy, according to the flesh, that he may know according to the flesh how to succor his people according to their infirmities.


“Not even Christ himself

Can save man else than as He hold man’s soul;

And therefore did He come into our flesh,”[38]


Alma 12


v.10= And therefore, he that will harden his heart, the same receiveth the lesser portion of the word; and he that will not harden his heart, to him is given the greater portion of the word, until it is given unto him to know the mysteries of God until he know them in full.


“Ordinary people waited till life disclosed to them its secrets, but to the few, to the elect, the mysteries of life were revealed before the veil was drawn away.”[39]


Alma 14


v.11= But Alma said unto him: The Spirit constraineth me that I must not stretch forth mine hand; for behold the Lord receiveth them up unto himself, in glory; and he doth suffer that they may do this thing, or that the people may do this thing unto them, according to the hardness of their hearts, that the judgments which he shall exercise upon them in his wrath may be just; and the blood of the innocent shall stand as a witness against them, yea, and cry mightily against them at the last day.


“th’ unjust the just hath slain,

…but the bloodie Fact

Will be aveng’d, and th’ others Faith approv’d

Loose no reward, though here thou see him die,”[40]


“And in these same words I saw a mervelous, hey privitye hid in God, which privity He shall openly make knowen to us in Hevyn, in which knowyng we shal verily see the cause why He suffrid synne to come, in which syte we shall endlesly joyen in our Lord God.”[41]


Alma 17


v.37= But behold, every man that lifted his club to smite Ammon, he smote off their arms with his sword; for he did withstand their blows by smiting their arms with the edge of his sword, insomuch that they began to be astonished, and began to flee before him; yea, and they were not few in number; and he caused them to flee by the strength of his arm.


“τὸν μὲν ἄρ᾽ Εὐρύπυλος, Εὐαίμονος ἀγλαὸς υἱός,

πρόσθεν ἕθεν φεύγοντα μεταδρομάδην ἔλασ᾽ ὦμον

φασγάνῳ ἀΐξας, ἀπὸ δ᾽ ἔξεσε χεῖρα βαρεῖαν:

αἱματόεσσα δὲ χεὶρ πεδίῳ πέσε”[42]


Alma 22

v.18= O God, Aaron hath told me that there is a God; and if there is a God, and if thou art God, wilt thou make thyself known unto me, and I will give away all my sins to know thee, and that I may be raised from the dead, and be saved at the last day. And now when the king had said these words, he was struck as if he were dead.

“’God save me if there’s any God.’

But even so, God save me”[43]


Alma 24 (This chapter has elements reminiscent of Sophocles’ Ajax)


v.16= And now, my brethren, if our brethren seek to destroy us, behold, we will hide away our swords, yea, even we will bury them deep in the earth, that they may be kept bright, as a testimony that we have never used them, at the last day; and if our brethren destroy us, behold, we shall go to our God and shall be saved.


“O thou old warrior, let us yield to Heaven!

Come, plant we here in earth our angry spears,

And make a truce…”[44]


Alma 29


v.4= I ought not to harrow up in my desires the firm decree of a just God, for I know that he granteth unto men according to their desire, whether it be unto death or unto life; yea, I know that he allotteth unto men, yea, decreeth unto them decrees which are unalterable, according to their wills, whether they be unto salvation or unto destruction.


“δοιοὶ γάρ τε πίθοι κατακείαται ἐν Διὸς οὔδει

δώρων οἷα δίδωσι κακῶν, ἕτερος δὲ ἑάων:

ᾧ μέν κ᾽ ἀμμίξας δώῃ Ζεὺς τερπικέραυνος,

ἄλλοτε μέν τε κακῷ ὅ γε κύρεται, ἄλλοτε δ᾽ ἐσθλῷ:”[45]


Alma 30


v.44= But Alma said unto him: Thou hast had signs enough; will ye tempt your God? Will ye say, Show unto me a sign, when ye have the testimony of all these thy brethren, and also all the holy prophets? The scriptures are laid before thee, yea, and all things denote there is a God; yea, even the earth, and all things that are upon the face of it, yea, and its motion, yea, and also all the planets which move in their regular form do witness that there is a Supreme Creator.


“But still I feel that His embrace

Slides down by thrills, through all things made,

Through sight and sound of every place;”[46]


Alma 32


v.34= And now, behold, is your knowledge perfect? Yea, your knowledge is perfect in that thing, and your faith is dormant; and this because you know, for ye know that the word hath swelled your souls, and ye also know that it hath sprouted up, that your understanding doth begin to be enlightened, and your mind doth begin to expand.


“When the prophecies of faith are verified, the function of faith is gone.”[47]


Alma 39


v.3= And this is not all, my son. Thou didst do that which was grievous unto me; for thou didst forsake the ministry, and did go over into the land of Siron among the borders of the Lamanites, after the harlot Isabel.


“Judg not what is best

By pleasure, though to Nature seeming meet,

Created, as thou art, to nobler end

Holie and pure, conformitie divine.”[48]


Alma 40

v.3= Behold, he bringeth to pass the resurrection of the dead. But behold, my son, the resurrection is not yet. Now, I unfold unto you a mystery; nevertheless, there are many mysteries which are kept, that no one knoweth them save God himself. But I show unto you one thing which I have inquired diligently of God that I might know—that is concerning the resurrection.


“Our Lord God shewid to manner of privityes. On is this gret privyte with al the

prive peynts that longen therto, and these privites He wil we knowen hid

into the tyme that He wil clerly shewen hem to us. That other arn the privytes

that He wil maken opyn and knowen to us…”[49]


Alma 41


vv.2-4= I say unto thee, my son, that the plan of restoration is requisite with the justice of God; for it is requisite that all things should be restored to their proper order. Behold, it is requisite and just, according to the power and resurrection of Christ, that the soul of man should be restored to its body, and that every part of the body should be restored to itself. And it is requisite with the justice of God that men should be judged according to their works; and if their works were good in this life, and the desires of their hearts were good, that they should also, at the last day, be restored unto that which is good. And if their works are evil they shall be restored unto them for evil. Therefore, all things shall be restored to their proper order, every thing to its natural frame—mortality raised to immortality, corruption to incorruption—raised to endless happiness to inherit the kingdom of God, or to endless misery to inherit the kingdom of the devil, the one on one hand, the other on the other—


“Nel ponto della morte la riceve solamente l’anima; ma nel giudicio generale la riceverà insiememente l’anima e’l corpo, perché’l corpo è stato compagno e strumento de l’anima a fare il bene e il male, secondo che è piaciuto a la propria volontà. Ogni operazione buona e gactiva è (acta col mezzo del corpo; e però giustamente, figliuola mia, è renduto a’ miei eletti gloria e bene infinito col corpo loro glorificato, remunerandoli delle loro fadighe che per me insiememente con l’anima portò. E cosí agl’ iniqui sarà renduta pena etternale col mezzo del corpo loro, perché fu strumento del male.”[50]


v.5= The one raised to happiness according to his desires of happiness, or good according to his desires of good; and the other to evil according to his desires of evil; for as he has desired to do evil all the day long even so shall he have his reward of evil when the night cometh.


“Thus Heav’n, that cou’d constrain us to obey,

(With rev’rence if we might presume to say,)

Seems to relax the rights of Sov’reign sway:

Permits to Man the choice of Good and Ill;

And makes us Happy by our own Free-will.”[51]


Alma 46


v.12= And it came to pass that he rent his coat; and he took a piece thereof, and wrote upon it—In memory of our God, our religion, and freedom, and our peace, our wives, and our children—and he fastened it upon the end of a pole.


“Quod votis optastis, adest, perfringere dextra;

in manibus Mars ipse viris. Nunc coniugis esto

quisque suae tectique memor, nunc magna referto

facta, patrum laudes.”[52]


Alma 49


v.26= And it came to pass that he was exceedingly angry with his people, because he had not obtained his desire over the Nephites; he had not subjected them to the yoke of bondage.


“No man yet was ever wicked without secret discontent…”[53]


Helaman 13


vv.22-23= Ye do not remember the Lord your God in the things with which he hath blessed you, but ye do always remember your riches, not to thank the Lord your God for them; yea, your hearts are not drawn out unto the Lord, but they do swell with great pride, unto boasting, and unto great swelling, envyings, strifes, malice, persecutions, and murders, and all manner of iniquities.

For this cause hath the Lord God caused that a curse should come upon the land, and also upon your riches, and this because of your iniquities.


“Since, struck with rays of prosperous fortune blind,

We light alone in dark afflictions find.”[54]


3 Nephi 11


v.11= And behold, I am the light and the life of the world; and I have drunk out of that bitter cup which the Father hath given me, and have glorified the Father in taking upon me the sins of the world, in the which I have suffered the will of the Father in all things from the beginning.


“I am content to touch the brink

Of the other goblet, and I think

My bitter drink a wholesome drink.”[55]


“Nunc pereat Teucrisque pio det sanguine poenas.”[56]


3 Nephi 12


v.48= Therefore I would that ye should be perfect even as I, or your Father who is in heaven is perfect.


“scio, neminem posse beate vivere, ne tolerabiliter quidem, sine sapientiae studio, et beatam vitam perfecta sapientia effici”[57]


Mormon 1


v.3= Therefore, when ye are about twenty and four years old I would that ye should remember the things that ye have observed concerning this people; and when ye are of that age go to the land Antum, unto a hill which shall be called Shim; and there have I deposited unto the Lord all the sacred engravings concerning this people.


“Her cave was stored with scrolls of strange device,

The works of some Saturnian Archimage,

Which taught the expiations at whose price

Men from the Gods might win that happy age

Too lightly lost, redeeming native vice;

And which might quench the Earth-consuming rage

Of gold and blood — till men should live and move

Harmonious as the sacred stars above;”[58]


Ether 8


v.18= And it came to pass that they formed a secret combination, even as they of old; which combination is most abominable and wicked above all, in the sight of God;


“Nullam capitaliorem pestem quam voluptatem corporis hominibus dicebat a natura datam, cuius voluptatis avidae libidines temere et ecfrenate ad potiendum incitarentur.  Hinc patriae proditiones, hinc rerum publicarum eversiones, hinc cum hostibus clandestina colloquia nasci;”[59]


Ether 15


v.31= And it came to pass that after he had smitten off the head of Shiz, that Shiz raised up on his hands and fell; and after that he had struggled for breath, he died.


“The outstretched arms shot up convulsively three times, waving grotesque stiff-fingered hands in the air.”[60]


Moroni 8


v.10= Behold I say unto you that this thing shall ye teach—repentance and baptism unto those who are accountable and capable of committing sin; yea, teach parents that they must repent and be baptized, and humble themselves as their little children, and they shall all be saved with their little children.


“A solemn thing it is to me

To look upon a babe that sleeps

Wearing in its spirit-deeps

The undeveloped mystery

Of our Adam’s taint and woe,

Which, when they developed be,

Will not let it slumber so;”[61]



[1] Vergil, Aeneid 10:184-185

[2] John Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel, 416

[3] Homer, Iliad 1.63

[4] Vergil, Aeneid 9:614-616

[5] John Milton, Paradise Lost 1:367-373

[6] James Madison, Federalist 37

[7] John Dryden, Religio Laici, 258-275

[8] Ralph Waldo Emerson, Napoleon: Man of the World

[9] Julian of Norwich, The Shewings of Julian of Norwich, XVIII.689-690

[10] Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh 1.689-690

[11] William Blake, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, Plate 3

[12] Rainer Maria Rilke, Duineser Elegien, 8.33-34

[13] Julian of Norwich, The Shewings of Julian of Norwich, XV.577-580

[14] Samuel Johnson, Adventurer #67

[15] Ralph Waldo Emerson, Conduct of Life

[16] Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray, Ch. 3

[17] Cicero, de natura deorum, 1.50

[18] John Milton, Paradise Lost, 9.694-697

[19] Alexander Pope, An Essay on Criticism, 259-260

[20] William Shakespeare, Cymbeline, Act IV, Sc. 2

[21] Percy Bysshe Shelley, Fragments Connected with Epipsychidion, 115-117

[22] Samuel Johnson, The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia, Ch. 3

[23] Julian of Norwich, The Shewings of Julian of Norwich, XLVIII.1712-1714

[24] John Milton, Paradise Lost, 5.532-534

[25] Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh, 8.764-766

[26] Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Vision of Poets, 691-693

[27] Julian of Norwich, The Shewings of Julian of Norwich, XXIX.1000-1002

[28] Homer, Iliad, 22.260-266

[29] John Milton, Of Reformation in England, Bk 2

[30] John Dryden, Religio Laici, 174-181

[31] John Milton, A Mask Presented at Ludlow Castle, 420-421

[32] Ralph Waldo Emerson, Napoleon: Man of the World

[33] Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh, 5.949

[34] John Milton, Paradise Lost, 4.55-57

[35] Cicero, Cato Maior de senectute, 27.9

[36] John Milton, Prolusion 7

[37] Aristot. Pol. 3.1286b

[38] Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh, 8.544-546

[39] Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray, Ch. 3

[40] John Milton, Paradise Lost, 11.455, 457-459

[41] Julian of Norwich, The Shewings of Julian of Norwich, XXVII.960-963

[42] Homer, Iliad, 5.79-82

[43] Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Aurora Leigh, 1.796-797

[44] Matthew Arnold, Sohrab and Rustum, 438-440

[45] Homer, Iliad, 24:527-530

[46] Elizabeth Barrett Browning, A Child’s Thought of God, 4.10-12

[47] George Santayana, Interpretations of Poetry and Religion

[48] John Milton, Paradise Lost, 11.603-606

[49] Julian of Norwich, The Shewings of Julian of Norwich, XXXIV.1146-1149


[51] John Dryden, PROLOGUE To His ROYAL HIGHNESS, Upon His first appearance at the DƲKE’S THEATRE since his Return from SCOTLAND, 40-44

[52] Vergil, Aenied, 10.279-282

[53] Samuel Johnson, Rambler #76

[54] John Dryden, Astraea Redux, 95-96

[55] Elizabeth Barrett Browning, A Vision of Poets, 916-918

[56] Vergil, Aeneid, 10.617

[57] Seneca, epistulae morales, 16.1

[58] Percy Bysshe Shelley, The Witch of Atlas, 18.185-192

[59] Cicero, Cato Maior de senectute, 39-40

[60] Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray, Ch.11

[61] Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Isobel’s Child, 113-119